Authorities said Hussein was repeatedly jailed for drug dealing and was implicated in attacks organized in the 1980s by Islamic militant groups targeting video stores.
Police outside Cairo Synagogue (Photo: AP)
Gamal Hussein shouted at the judge "Your verdict is a failure! You all are infidels!"
Hussein, 50, entered a downtown hotel in February last year and tossed the suitcase containing explosives out of the window at the synagogue across the street before fleeing.
The suitcase briefly caught fire but fell across the street from the historic synagogue, known as Shaare Shamayim, or the Gate of Heaven. No one was injured.